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We are talking about road bikes in this series. We already covered selecting the right frame size, checking standover height, and adjusting the height and position of your seat.
The length and angle of your bike's stem determine how far you will reach and bend your waist in order to reach the handlebars. If your stem is the wrong length or angle, you can either adjust or replace it. Some bikes' stems are adjustable, but more commonly, you will have to have a bike shop order a correctly fitting stem and install it for you.
When seated on your bike, have someone hold it upright while you check for stem fit. With your hands on the handlebars, your waist should be bent so that your back is at a 45 degree angle. Your neck should feel comfortable when you look forward. Your arms should be gently bent at the elbows to allow for maximum shock absorption, and you should be able to reach your brakes and gears easily.
These guidelines will help you determine the correct classic road bike fit. Many cyclists vary these adjustments for the style of riding they do, or personal preferences.